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A marketing strategy outlines the manner in which the marketing mix is used to attract and satisfy the target market(s) and accomplish an organization's objectives. These presentation slides comprehensively cover key types of marketing strategy: from market strategy, product strategy, promotion strategy, to pricing strategy.
You can download this excellent presentation at : Powerpoint Slides on Marketing and Strategy
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This presentation provide a comprehensive framework on how to craft a good strategy to boost your sales performance.
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A marketing strategy outlines the manner in which the marketing mix is used to attract and satisfy the target market(s) and accomplish an organization's objectives. Specifically, marketing strategy is develop by considering the following factors :

Environment analysis and marketing research
Monitoring of external factors affecting success or failure, such as the economy and competition; solicitation of data to resolve specific marketing issues

Consumer analysis
Examination and evaluation of consumer characteristics, needs, and purchase processes

Product planning (including foods, services, and ideas)
Development and maintenance of products, product assortments, product positions, brands, packaging, and options, and deletion of old products

Distribution planning
Establishment of channel relations, physical distribution, inventory management, warehousing, transportation, allocation of goods, wholesaling, detailing

Promotion planning
Combination of advertising, publicity, personal selling, and sales promotion; also involves public relations and any other form of communication

Price planning
Outlines price ranges and levels, pricing techniques purchase terms, price adjustments, and the use of price as an active or passive factor
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Setting up and managing individual customer relationships can be broken up into four interrelated implementation tasks: 1) Identify customers. Relationships are only possible with individuals, not with markets, segments, or populations. Therefore, the first task in setting up a relationship is to identify, individually, the party at the other end of the relationship.
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New product development can play a variety of roles in defining corporate strategy to gain competitive advantage. This variability makes the process of new product development subject to the emerging organizational issues of the day. In general, a long-run, focused, and ongoing strategic commitment to attractive market opportunities should define the role of new product development. New product development should be integrated into an organizations strategy and significantly contribute to its perpetual renewal.
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All marketing strategy is built on STP : Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. A company discovers different needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy in a superior way, and then positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the company's distinctive offering and image.
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The purpose in this phase is to understand customer perceptions and perspectives about your brand relative to the competition and opportunities for growth. This phase asks the following questions: a) Among current and target customers, what does our brand really stand for today? What are its strengths and weaknesses? How does our brand compare to competitive brands?
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The Porter generic strategy model examines two major marketing planning concepts and the alternatives available with each: competitive scope (broad target or narrow target) and competitive advantage (lower cost or differentiation). By combining the two concepts, the Porter model identifies these basic strategies: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.
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The overall communications strategy employs advertising to tell potential customers about the product through radio, television, direct mail, and public print and personal selling to deploy a sales force to call on potential customers, urge them to buy, and take orders. Finally, pricing is an important element of any marketing program. The company must set the product prices that different classes of customers will pay and determine the margins or commissions to compensate agents, wholesalers, and retailers for moving the product to ultimate users.
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Benchmarking. Know how effective your talent efforts are today and continue to measure these efforts using the metrics outlined next to gauge your efforts over time. Are they working? Also, continuously benchmark internal and external talent. The grass is hardly as green on the other side as you want to believe. Still, knowing who is out there, what they are doing, and how your internal talent stacks up is an essential element of strategic talent planning.
From Indonesia , Jakarta
All marketing strategy is built on STP : Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. A company discovers different needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy in a superior way, and then positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the company's distinctive offering and image. If a company does a poor job of positioning, the market will be confused as to what to expect. If a company does an excellent job of positioning, then it can work out the rest of its marketing planning and differentiation from its positioning strategy.
From Indonesia , Jakarta
The overall communications strategy employs advertising to tell potential customers about the product through radio, television, direct mail, and public print and personal selling to deploy a sales force to call on potential customers, urge them to buy, and take orders. Finally, pricing is an important element of any marketing program. The company must set the product prices that different classes of customers will pay and determine the margins or commissions to compensate agents, wholesalers, and retailers for moving the product to ultimate users.
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Strategic innovation can redefine potential customers; one example is Canon's pioneering focus in the 1970s on the development of photocopiers aimed at small businesses and home offices rather than large corporations. Strategic innovation also can reconceptualize delivered customer value, as in IBM's shift from selling hardware and software products to selling complete solutions in the 1990s. Or strategic innovation can redesign the end-to-end value chain architecture, as in Dell Computer's direct sales model, introduced in the 1980s.
From Indonesia , Jakarta
All marketing strategy is built on STP : Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. A company discovers different needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy in a superior way, and then positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the company's distinctive offering and image.
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Enterprises must improve the effectiveness of their interactions with customers. Each successive interaction with a customer should take place in the context of all previous interactions with that customer. A bank may ask one question in each month's electronic statement, and next month's question may depend on last month's answer. A conversation with a customer should pick up where the last one left off. Effective customer interactions provide better insight into a customer's needs.
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Job Satisfaction
What work-related variables determine job satisfaction? An extensive review of the literature indicates that the more important factors conducive to job satisfaction are mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, and supportive colleagues.

MENTALLY CHALLENGING WORK Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom, and feedback on how well they are doing. These characteristics make work mentally challenging.

EQUITABLE REWARDS Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result.

SUPPORTIVE WORKING CONDITIONS Employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal comfort and facilitating doing a good job. Studies demonstrate that employees prefer physical surroundings that are not dangerous or uncomfortable. Additionally, most employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities, and with adequate tools and equipment.

SUPPORTIVE COLLEAGUES People get more out of work than merely money or tangible achievements. For most employees, work also fills the need for social interaction. Not surprisingly, therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers leads to increased job satisfaction. The behavior of one's boss also is a major determinant of satisfaction. Studies generally find that employee satisfaction is increased when the immediate supervisor is understanding and friendly, offers praise for good performance, listens to employees' opinions, and shows a personal interest in them.

Source of Reference:
Stephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall. You can obtain this fine book here
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There are three types of training need analysis : organizational need analysis, job need analysis, and person need analysis. Organizational need analysis begins with an examination of the short and long-term objectives of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these objectives.
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Cost and time constraints pose obvious limitations on recruiting efforts. For example, an organization with very little money budgeted for recruiting will not even consider hiring a graphic artist to design attractive recruiting materials. Rather than spend money to advertise openings, an organization with few cash resources for recruiting will often use a system of employee referrals in which potential applicants are referred to the organization by present employees. Such organizations may also make use of public employment agencies, which refer applicants to an organization at no cost.
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Don't let open positions stagnate while hiring managers churn through reams of resumes from unqualified candidates. The framework provided in this book shows you how to be proactive in assessing and meeting your talent needs. Put the time and resources behind this framework to make it happen in your organization. And be willing to open up positions and make churn happen within the organization to accommodate new candidates and grow existing talent. Keeping the place moving will add the extra adrenaline needed for all tal¬ent to see a future in front of them in the current organization.
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Measure results. Collecting manager and employee comments from career management workshops and disseminating them to other managers and employees works quite well. So does documenting the success stories employees who decided to stay within the company or whose performance improved because they attended the workshops and initiated career discussions with their managers
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Overcoming Resistance to Change
At the organization level, resistance to change can come from three sources. Technical resistance comes from the habit of following common procedures and the consideration of sunk costs invested in the status quo. Political resistance can arise when organizational changes threaten powerful stakeholders, such as top executive or staff personnel, or call into question the past decisions of leaders. Finally, culture resistance takes the form of systems and procedures that reinforce the status quo, promoting conformity to existing values, norms, and assumptions about how things should operate.
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Minimize the impact of a destructive team member. If you inherit a problematic employee or hire someone who turns out to have negative effects on the team's morale, find out what is interfering with that person's ability to be a positive, productive worker.
- If the problem is solvable (for example, maybe the person would be happier transferring to another area), do what you can to resolve the situation.
- If the person must stay, make clear your expectations for improvement and, if necessary, what the consequences might be if no improvement is forthcoming.
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There are five fundamental skill that need to be mastered by Human Resource Development (HRD) practitioners: (1) needs assessment, (2) program design, development, and evaluation (including individual evaluation), (3) marketing of HRD programs, (4) cost/benefit analysis, and (5) facilitation of learning.
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The career development system, like the performance management system, should be owned by line management, not by human resources, if it is to be successful. Getting line management to help design this system from the outset will go a long way toward making this happen.
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A high-performance organization structure aligns resources appropriately around both core work processes and functions, and provides the proper balance between centralized and decentralized operations. It develops a flexible and responsive work system with the fewest possible organization levels. It also minimizes the number of internal boundaries among units, which reduces the effort that must be spent on coordination.
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Redesign performance management system to make the process easier, if necessary. Some companies require managers to have career discussions with their employees at least twice a year, or to jointly create career development action plans once a year. Others incorporate manager ratings as career coaches on the performance review.
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Review and discuss the performance appraisal you wrote and the individual's achievements list. This is the heart of the meeting. The manager and the individual review the performance appraisal the manager has written (and the self-appraisal if the individual has completed one).
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Designing the course involves actually deciding on a plan of action, i.e. a lesson or session plan. This provides you with the orderly procedures for conducting or facilitating a session efficiently. It should not be long (two pages at the most) but should be complete and practical. It should be written or sectioned in a format that is helpful and meaningful to you, the trainer, and it should give you confidence— not only is it proof that you have prepared adequately, but it is your 'prop' if you need it.
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An organization that makes a false positive error incurs three types of costs. The first type of costs are those incurred while the person is employed. These can be the result of production or profit losses, damaged public relations or company reputation, accidents due to ineptitude or negligence, absenteeism, etc. The second type of costs are those associated with training, transfer, or terminating the employee. Costs of replacing the employee, the third type of cost, include costs of recruiting, selecting, and training a replacement. Generally, the more important the job, the greater the costs of the selection error.
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Forced distribution is a form of comparative evaluation in which an evaluator rates subordinates according to a specified distribution. Unlike ranking methods, forced distribution is frequently applied to several rather than only one component of job performance.
Use of the forced distribution method is demonstrated by a manager who is told that he or she must rate subordinates according to the following distribution: 10 percent low; 20 percent below average; 40 percent average; 20 percent above average; and 10 percent high. In a group of 20 employees, two would have to be placed in the low category, four in the below-average category, eight in the average, four above average, and two would be placed in the highest category. The proportions of forced distribution can vary. For example, a supervisor could be required to place employees into top, middle, and bottom thirds of a distribution.
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BARS - Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are rating scales whose scale points are defined by statements of effective and ineffective behaviors. They are said to be behaviorally anchored in that the scales represent a continuum of descriptive statements of behaviors ranging from least to most effective. An evaluator must indicate which behavior on each scale best describes an employee's performance.

BARS differ from other rating scales in that scale points are specifically defined behaviors. Also, BARS are constructed by the evaluators who will use them. There are four steps in the BARS construction process:

1. Listing of all the important dimensions of performance for a job or jobs
2. Collection of critical incidents of effective and ineffective behavior
3. Classification of effective and ineffective behaviors to appropriate performance dimensions
4. Assignment of numerical values to each behavior within each dimension (i.e., scaling of behavioral anchors)
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