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Hey,

Compiled a glossary of brand this and brand that for an assignment.

Tried attaching as a file but had some problems.

Pasting as text. Hope you find it useful.

Regards

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BRAND

1. A name, sign, symbol or design, or some combination of these, used to identify a product and to differentiate it from competitors' products.

2. The set of physical attributes of a product or service, together with the beliefs and expectations surrounding it - a unique combination which the name or logo of the product or service should evoke in the mind of the audience

3. A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name. (AMA, 2005)

4. A unique and identifiable symbol, association, name or trademark which serves to differentiate competing products or services. Both a physical and emotional trigger to create a relationship between consumers and the product/service.

5. A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed

6. Collection of perceptions in the mind of the consumer

7. The sum of all the characteristics, tangible and intangible, that makes a company’s offer unique.

BRANDAID

A decision support system for determining the marketing mix for a particular brand. The model has sub models dealing with advertising spending level, price, and salesperson effort (i.e., dollars per customer per year). Its parameters can be calibrated by combining historical data (e.g., on sales, market share, advertising spending, etc.) with structured subjective judgments (Little 1975).

BRAND ADVERTISING

The featuring of a particular brand in media vehicles in order to build strong, long-term consumer attitudes towards it

BRAND ARCHITECTURE

The manner in which a portfolio of brands is structured

BRAND ASSOCIATIONS

Components of brand image, usually (but not always) assessed by qualitative research method.

BRAND ASSET MANAGEMENT

A balanced investment approach for building the meaning of the brand, communicating it internally and externally, and leveraging it to increase brand profitability, brand asset value, and brand returns over time (Davis, 2002)

BRAND ATTRIBUTES

1. Functional or emotional associations that are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive and can have varying degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments.

2. Brand attributes are designed by the producer and expected by the consumer. Eventually, they become part of the products’ unique aura. Attributes define the brand and are inseparable from the brand’s overall image.

BRAND AUDIT

A comprehensive and systematic examination of all collateral activities (both tangible and intangible) to assess the health of the brand, uncover its sources of equity and suggest ways to improve and leverage that equity. The brand audit requires the understanding of brand equity sources from the perspective of both the firm and the consumer.

BRAND AUTHORISATION

The obtaining of distribution and display, usually of a consumer packaged good, through a retail outlet.

BRAND AWARENESS

1. The proportion of target customers that recall a brand. Realisation by a consumer of the existance and availability of a particular product. Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Unaided awareness is spontaneous; aided or prompted awareness is when the name is recognised among others that are listed or identified.

2. The percentage of population or target market who are aware of the existence of a given brand or company. There are two types of awareness: spontaneous, which measures the percentage of people who spontaneously mention a particular brand when asked to name brands in a certain category; and prompted, which measures the percentage of people who recognise a brand from a particular category when shown a list

3. Brand awareness is measured as the proportion of target customers which has prior knowledge of the brand. It is measured by two distinct measures; brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness). Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

BRAND CHAMPION

Brand champions are internal and external story tellers who spread the brand vision, brand values and cultivate the brand in an organisation. Every organisation needs committed and passionate brand champions. The more employees the organisation can turn into brand champions, the better will it be equipped to build and maintain strong brand equity. Singapore Airlines, L'Oreal, Harley Davidson, Nike, Google and LEGO are well-known examples of companies which benefit tremendously from their employees being strong and dedicated brand champions.

BRAND CHOICE

The selection of one brand from a set of alternative brands

BRAND COMPETITORS

Competing brands of products which can satisfy a consumer's wants almost equally as well as each other.



BRAND CONCEPT

The image that the brand sponsor wants a particular brand to have; the desired positioning of the brand in the market and in the minds of consumers.

BRAND CONTACTS

Any information bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the sponsoring organization that relates to the marketer's product or service.

BRAND CULTURE

Strong brands are managed by organisations characterized by their strong internal brand cultures. A strong brand culture is determined by the internal attitudes towards branding, management behaviour and practices of an organisation. These combined efforts are crucial to build and maintain strong brand equity through competitive advantages from branding. The most prominent person to lead these efforts is the CEO and the senior management team.

BRAND CONVICTION

The strong attitude or attachment consumers have towards a particular brand.

BRAND DEVELOPMENT INDEX

1. A comparison of the percent of a brand's sales in a market to the percent of the national population in that same market

2. A ratio of brand consumption intensity to population intensity by country, state, city, region, etc

BRAND ENVIRONMENTALISM

Brand environmentalism means accepting the responsibility to protect your brand and present it in the best possible light whenever and wherever it may be found (Bedbury, 2002)

BRAND EQUITY

1. The sum of all brand messages, brand contacts, brand associations, and brand networks that the consumer creates in his or her mind to manage information about the brand

2. The value of a brand. From a consumer perspective, brand equity is based on consumer attitudes about positive brand attributes and favorable consequences of brand use.

3. A term used in reference to the value of a well-known brand; brand equity can greatly affect the buyout price of a company.

4. The value - both tangible and intangible that a brand adds to a product/service

5. The value of the brand in its holistic sense to its owners as a corporate asset

BRAND EQUITY STRATEGY

An organisation wants to build and maintain strong brand equity for the respective brands in their portfolio including the corporate brand. The brand equity strategy serves as a guide for these marketing efforts and illustrates the plans and tactics needed to meet the brand objectives.

BRAND ESSENCE

1. The core characteristic that defines a brand

2. The brand essence is an articulation of the "heart and soul" of the brand. A brand essence is typical three to five short word phrases that capture the core essence or spirit of the brand positioning and the values characterizing the brand. The brand essence is the description which defines a brand and the guiding vision of the brand.

3. The distillation of a brand's intrinsic characteristics into a succinct core concept



BRAND ESTABLISHMENT

The building-up of a brand in the introductory stage of the product's life cycle; brand establishment involves developing an effective distribution network for the product and convincing consumers to buy it.

BRAND EXPANSION

The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market, geographic market, or distribution channel

BRAND EXTENSION

1. The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products, or outside of its category. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.

2. A product line extension marketed under the same general brand as a previous item or items. To distinguish the brand extension from the other item(s) under the primary brand, one can either add a secondary brand identification or add a generic. Thus an Epson FX-85 printer is an extension of Epson that used the secondary brand of FX-85, while Jello Instant Pudding is an extension of the Jello brand that uses a generic term. A brand extension is usually aimed at another segment of the general market for the overall brand.

3. Process by which a company develops new products to be marketed under an existing brand name

4. The use of a well-known brand name to launch a new product, of an unrelated category, into the market; also called Franchise Extension.

5. A new product or service that is related to an existing brand, but that offers a different benefit and/or appeals to a different target segment.

BRAND FAMILIARITY

The awareness consumers have of a particular brand

BRAND FRANCHISE

The loyalty that attaches to a well-managed brand

BRAND GENERIC

This is the second half of a product's identifying title. Brand is the first half, and identifies one seller's version, while the generic is the second half and identifies the general class of item. [Example: Jello (brand) gelatin dessert (generic)]. This is not to be confused with generic brand (such as on some low-price items in supermarkets), for which there is no individual brand.

BRAND GUIDELINES

Brand guidelines are internal tools available in an organisation to educate, reinforce and motivate all involved in building and maintaining strong brands. Brand guidelines are crucial in establishing and enhancing a strong and dedicated brand culture. The brand guidelines can take various forms and methods, and could consist of brand vision, brand identity, brand strategy guidelines, a short description of the brand, brand values, brand positioning, positioning guidelines, communication tips, writing style guidelines, design style guidelines, and company-wide contact details to obtain more information from central brand management.

BRAND HARMONIZATION

The synchronization of all elements of brand identity, across a line of products or services and/or across geographic markets

BRAND HARVESTING

Decreasing marketing expenditure on a brand to zero, or to a minimal level, when sales and profits begin to decline, relying on its purchase by loyal customers to sustain it; brand harvesting (which often precedes total elimination of the brand) is usually undertaken to free up cash with which to pursue new market opportunities.

BRAND IDENTIFICATION DECISIONS

Decisions relating to the type of brand to give to a product; four brand identity alternatives are available - single brand name ("Pal" dog food), product-line brand name (Sears' Kenmore home appliance range), corporate brand name ("Kellogg's Sustain") and corporate family name ("Heinz Baked Beans").

BRAND IDENTITY

1. A unique set of functional and mental associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should stand for and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to note that a brand identity refers to the strategic goal for a brand; while brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers.

2. The outward expression of the brand, including its name and visual appearance. The brand's identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors.

3. Ways in which a brand is outwardly presented (e.g. name, logo, typography, colour etc). Sometimes also refers to the strategic goal for a brand.

BRAND IDENTITY EQUITIES

The value of specific elements of identification (e.g., name, symbol or colors) to the brands owners

BRAND IMAGE

1. A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. (Note that brand image is what is currently in the minds of consumers, whereas brand identity is aspirational).

2. The customer's net "out-take" from the brand. For users this is based on practical experience of the product or service concerned (informed impressions) and how well this meets expectations; for non-users it is based almost entirely upon uninformed impressions, attitudes and beliefs.

3. The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand-their thoughts, feelings, expectations.

4. The feelings, moods, emotions and connotations evoked by a brand.

BRAND INDIFFERENCE

A purchasing pattern characterized by a low degree of brand loyalty.

BRAND INSISTENCE

The stage of brand loyalty where the buyer will accept no alternative and will search extensively for the required brand

BRAND LABEL

A label which gives the brand name of the product

BRAND LEADER

The company with the highest percentage share of a certain market

BRAND LEGACY

A Brand Legacy begins from a point of origin (core idea) and considers historic message layering to derive a current perception as it pertains to your target audience. (Nissim, 2005)

BRAND LEVERAGING

Broadening a company's product range by introducing additional forms or types of products under a brand name which is already successful in another category - Also called Product Leveraging, Brand Extension and Franchise Extension

BRAND LICENSING

1. The leasing by a brand owner of the use of a brand to another company. Usually a licensing fee or royalty rate will be agreed for the use of the brand.

2. The leasing of the use of a brand to another company

BRAND LIFE CYCLE

A concept, building on the product life cycle concept, which states that brands also have a life cycle - introduction, growth, maturity, decline - and that particular brand management strategies are appropriate at each stage.

BRAND LOYALISTS

Consumers who remain loyal to a brand over a long period of time

BRAND LOYALTY

1. The strength of preference for a brand compared to other similar available options. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behaviour or price sensitivity.

2. (Sales promotion definition) The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category

3. (Consumer behavior definition) The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class.(AMA, 2005)

4. A measure of the degree to which a buyer recognises, prefers and insists upon a particular brand; brand loyalty results from continued satisfaction with a product considered important and gives rise to repeat purchases of products with little thought but with high-involvement.



BRAND MANAGEMENT

1. The process of managing an organisation's brands in order to increase long-term brand equity. Also the person or group responsible for designing brand identities, aligning them for maximum effectiveness, ensuring that they are not compromised by tactical actions, and designing appropriate brand crisis management plans.

2. The process by which marketers attempt to optimise the 'Marketing mix' for a specific brand

3. Practically this involves managing the tangible and intangible aspects of the brand. For product brands the tangibles are the product itself, the packaging, the price, etc. For service brands, the tangibles are to do with the customer experience - the retail environment, interface with salespeople, overall satisfaction, etc. For product, service and corporate brands, the intangibles are the same and refer to the emotional connections derived as a result of experience, identity, communication and people. Intangibles are therefore managed via the manipulation of identity, communication and people skills.

BRAND MANAGER

1. Person who has marketing responsibilities for a specific brand

2. An individual given responsibility for planning and co-ordinating the firm's marketing activities related to a single brand.

BRAND MAPPING

Brand mapping is a research technique to identify and visualize the core positioning of a brand compared to competing brands on various dimensions.

BRAND MARK

1. The brand mark is that part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It most commonly is a symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or a combination of these.

2. The part of a brand which can be seen but not spoken; the logo, symbol or design that forms part of the brand

BRAND MONOPOLY

A circumstance in which a particular brand dominates a market

BRAND NAME

1. Name used to distinguish one product from it's competitors. It can apply to a single product, an entire product line, or even a company.

2. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept.

3. The brand name is that part of a brand that can be spoken. It includes letters, numbers, or words. The term trademark covers all forms of brand (brand name, brand mark, etc.), but brand name is the form most often meant when trademark is used.

4. The part of a brand which can be spoken. It may include words, letters or numbers.

BRAND PARITY

A measure of how similar, or different, different brands in the same category are perceived to be. Brand parity varies widely from one category to another. It is high for petrol, for example: about 80% of respondents (BBDO survey) see no real difference between brands. By contrast, brand parity for cars is low: only about 25% of respondents say that one make is much the same as another.

BRAND PERSONALITY

1. Brand image or identity expressed in terms of human characteristics. Distinguishing and identifiable characteristics which offer consistent, enduring and predictable messages and perceptions

2. The attribution of human personality traits (seriousness, warmth, imagination, etc.) to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation. Usually done through long-term above-the-line advertising and appropriate packaging and graphics. These traits inform brand behavior through both prepared communication/packaging, etc., and through the people who represent the brand - its employees.

3. This is the psychological nature of a particular brand as intended by its sellers, though persons in the marketplace may see the brand otherwise (called brand image). These two perspectives compare to the personalities of individual humans: what we intend or desire, and what others see or believe.

4. The feeling that people have about a brand as distinct from what the product can actually do.

BRAND PLATFORM

The Brand Platform consists of the following elements:

• Brand Vision The brand's guiding insight into its world.

• Brand Mission How the brand will act on its insight.

• Brand Values The code by which the brand lives. The brand values act as a benchmark to measure behaviors and performance.

• Brand Personality The brand's personality traits

• Brand Tone of Voice How the brand speaks to its audiences.



BRAND PORTFOLIO

The brand portfolio includes all of the brands managed by the organization, including the master brands, endorsers, sub brands, branded differentiators, co-brands, branded energizers, and corporate brands. (Aaker, 2004)

BRAND POSITIONING

1. The "market space" a brand is perceived to occupy; the part of the brand identity that is to be actively communicated in a way that meaningfully sets it apart from the competition.

2. The distinctive position that a brand adopts in its competitive environment to ensure that individuals in its target market can tell the brand apart from others. Positioning involves the careful manipulation of every element of the marketing mix.

3. The specific niche in which the brand defines itself as occupying in the competitive environment -Positioning addresses differentiating brand attributes, user benefits and target segments, singly or in combination.

BRAND POSITIONING MAP

A statement that describes the "place" that a brand should occupy in the minds of target customers. Focuses on the equities that meaningfully set a brand apart from the competition. Typically constructed in the following format: "To (target market), Brand X is the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference)." Eg. "to the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference)." Eg. "to caffeine-concerned coffee drinkers, Sanka is the brand of coffee that has no caffeine to upset you."

BRAND POWER

1. A measure of the ability of the brand to dominate its product category

2. The force a particular brand has to dominate its category through the magnitude of its recognition.

BRAND PREFERENCE

The stage of brand loyalty at which a buyer will select a particular brand but will choose a competitor's brand if the preferred brand is unavailable.

BRAND PROMISE

1. The brand promise is the expected emotional and functional benefits of experiencing an organizations products and services (Knapp, 1999)

2. The spoken or unspoken expression of the continuing important and specific benefits clients connect with a firm, service or product.

BRAND PROMISCUITY

Consumer buying behaviour marked by an absence of brand loyalty

BRAND PROTECTION

Legislation forbidding other firms from using a company's registered brand names or brand marks without permission.

BRAND RECALL

Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).

BRAND RECOGNITION

The stage of brand loyalty at which the buyer is aware of the existence of a particular brand but has no preference for it

BRAND REINFORCEMENT

Activity associated with getting consumers who have tried a particular brand to become repeat purchasers and with attracting new users; brand reinforcement is a key objective of the growth stage of the product's life cycle.

BRAND RELEVANCE

The alignment of a brand - its attributes, identity and personality with the primary needs/wants of its target audience

BRAND REPOSITIONING

Changing the appeal of a brand in order for it to attract new market segments; brand repositioning may or may not involve modifying the product.



BRAND REVITALISATION

1. Strategy employed when a brand has reached maturity and profits begin to decline; approaches to revitalisation may include one or all of market expansion, product modification or brand repositioning.

2. A major overhaul of a brand, starting with its positioning and proceeding through creative regeneration of the brand identity

BRAND REVIVAL

The resurrection of a brand that is being harvested or which has previously been eliminated; brand revival, where the brand name is still strong, is often a less costly strategy than the creation of a new brand and may provide a firm with a significant advantage in a mature market.

BRAND-SCAPE

Positioning of brands within a competitive environment.

BRAND SLOGAN/TAGLINE

A easily recognisable and memorable phase which often accompanies a brand name. An aid to recall and reinforcement. Eg.Nike: "Just do it"

BRAND SPONSOR

The manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer who owns the brand

BRAND STRATEGIES

1. The 'big picture' plans and tactics deployed by an organisation/brand owner to to create brand equity.

2. A plan for the systematic development of a brand to enable it to meet its agreed objectives. The strategy should be rooted in the brand's vision and driven by the principles of differentiation and sustained consumer appeal. The brand strategy should influence the total operation of a business to ensure consistent brand behaviors and brand experiences.

3. Decision-making for the effective handling of brands; three general branding strategies are available - a single brand for all of the organisation's products, family branding, or the use of individual brand names for all products.

BRAND SWITCHING

1. The changing of support and conviction for one brand to a competing brand

2. A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another

BRAND TRIBE

A brand tribe is a formal or informal group of consumers whom share the same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand or a portfolio of brands. Brand tribes can be identified as strong drivers of brand strengths for many international brands like LEGO, Bang & Olufsen, Nike, Giorgio Armani, Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts, Singapore Airlines, Timberland and many other unique brands.

BRAND VALUATION

The process of identifying and measuring the economic benefit - brand value - that derives from brand ownership

BRAND VALUE

1. The value which a brand would be given if represented on a company balance sheet.

2. The code by which the brand lives. The brand values act as a benchmark to measure behaviors and performance.

3. The monetary premium that results from having customers who are committed to your brand and willing to pay extra for it. The financial value calculated or determined to be attributable to the brand, apart from other tangible assets.

4. The emotional and functional attributes a brand embodies.

BRAND VALUE PROPOSITION

The functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that provide value to the customer: provides the rationale for making one brand choice over another.

BRANDED ENVIRONMENT

The graphic system of identification as applied to three-dimensional physical space.



BRANDING

1. Selecting and blending tangible and intangible attributes to differentiate the product, service or corporation in an attractive, meaningful and compelling way.

2. Branding is the process of creating and disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.

3. The marketing practice of creating a name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiates a product from other products

4. The process by which both a brand and brand identity are developed

BRANDING EXCELLENCE

Branding Excellence is both an indicator of brand strength and a unique measure of the brand leadership capabilities of an organisation. Strong brands create profitable businesses, and organisations must seek to obtain branding Excellence to benefit and leverage fully from branding. A strong brand is characterized by a unique brand promise, and an outstanding brand delivery, and branding excellence measures this balance and the outcome including guidance on how to improve. Branding Excellence measures and describes how brand leadership internally in a corporation can add significant value in terms of brand strength and brand value.

CHOICE SET

The final set of brands from which a consumer makes a purchase choice after some brands in the awareness set have been considered and rejected.

CO-BRANDING

The use of two or more brand names in support of a new product, service or venture

COMBINATION BRANDING

Emphasizing a corporate or family name as well as an individual brand name in product marketing

CONJUNCTIVE MODEL (OF BRAND EVALUATION)

The idea that consumers establish minimum attribute levels which acceptable brands must possess; when about to make a purchase, they will consider only those brands that exhibit a conjunction of all the minimum requirements

CORPORATE BRAND

1. The gestalt of the organization, including its philosophy and culture as well as its physical characteristics

2. Associating the name of a corporation with the individual brand name in product marketing, usually to ensure that new product introductions will be more readily accepted; differs from family branding in that corporate branding is used for all products of the company or division rather than merely for a family of brands.

DETERMINANCE MODEL (OF BRAND EVALUATION)

A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands. The idea that consumers, about to make a purchase, will not be swayed in their product choice by any one product attribute, no matter how important, if all products possess the same amount of the attribute. Thus, the decision is made on the basis of a less important attribute

DIGITAL BRANDING

Using digital media to create, build, manage and revitalize the relationships between a brand and its audiences

DISJUNCTIVE MODEL (OF BRAND EVALUATION)

A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands; the idea that consumers, about to make a purchase, evaluate competing brands on the basis of one or a few attributes, ignoring their standing on other attributes

DISTRIBUTOR'S BRAND

A brand owned or controlled by an organisation, the primary economic commitment of which is to distribution rather than production; also called a private brand or a house brand.

ENDORSED BRAND

Generally a product or service brand name that is supported by a masterbrand - either dominantly e.g. Tesco Metro or lightly e.g. Nestle Kit-Kat

EXPECTANCY-VALUE MODEL (OF BRAND EVALUATION)

A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands. In this model, brand attributes are weighted; a consumer's beliefs about each brand's attributes are multiplied by the respective weights to produce a preference ranking of the alternatives

EVOKED SET

A set of alternatives that are activated directly from memory--certain brands considered during the buying process.

FAMILY BRAND

1. A brand that is used on two or more individual products. The product group may or may not be all of that firm's product line. The individual members of the family also carry individual brands to differentiate them from other family members. In rare cases there are family brands that have as members other family brands, each of which has individual brands. Automobiles fit the latter situation, as with Oldsmobile (family) Cutlass (family) Ciera (individual).

2. A brand name used for a number of products in the same line, such as Revlon cosmetics or Heinz canned foods; also referred to as a Blanket Brand

FAMILY LINE BRANDING

Using a family brand to cover only some of a firm's products. It contrasts with those cases where the term family brand is used only to designate the firm's entire product line.

FIGHTING BRAND

1. A line extension of a main brand that is marketed by one producer to compete directly with the lower-priced products of other producers in a given market. The fighting brand usually has a separate brand identity and a low price. Its quality is usually lower than that of the main brand; it may only be temporarily on the market; and its purpose is to hold customers without having to lower the price of the main brand.

2. A low-priced manufacturer's brand sold with minimal advertising and promotional expenditure; the brand is used to compete with dealers' brands and generics. Also called a Price Brand

FLANKER BRAND

1. A line extension. Sometimes the term is meant to cover only those line extensions that are not premium-priced or low-priced.

2. A brand introduced into a market by a company which already has an established place in order to increase overall market share in a product category

FREESTANDING BRAND

A brand name and identity used for a single product or service in a portfolio, which is unrelated to the names and identities of other products in the company's portfolio.

GENERIC BRAND

1. A "no-name" brand; a product that does not carry a brand name

2. Products not associated with a private or national brand name.

GLOBAL/WORLD BRANDS

Brands sold to world markets with essentially the same promotion

ICONIC BRAND

An identity brand that approaches the identity value of a cultural icon (Holt, 2004)

IDEAL BRAND MODEL

A model used to study consumer evaluation of alternative products; the consumer compares actual brands comparing them to a hypothetical ideal brand

INDIVIDUAL BRAND

A brand name used for a single product within a product line

INDIVIDUAL BRAND NAME

The part of the brand name which identifies a particular product when it follows a family brand name; for example, in the brand name "Holden Commodore", Holden is the family brand name, while Commodore is the individual brand name

INDIVIDUAL BRANDING

Using separate brands for each product, without a family brand to tie them to other brands of that firm. Individual brands are used when the products are different physically, are of different quality levels, are targeted for different users or uses, or vary in some other way that might cause confusion or loss of sales if brought together under a family brand umbrella.



INEPT SET

Brands that a buyer is aware of when considering a purchase, thinks poorly of , but uses in some way as a source of information

INERT SET

Brands that a buyer is aware of when considering a purchase but has no interest in

INGREDIENT BRAND

A strong brand that is used and promoted as a key part of a host brand

INTERACTIVE BRANDING

Process of developing Web sites and other interactive products, including strategy development, structural design and graphic design

LEXICOGRAPHIC MODEL (OF BRAND EVALUATION)

A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternatives; the idea that if two products are equal on the most important attribute, the consumer moves to the next most important, and, if still equal, to the next most important, etc. Thus, the purchase decision is made when one of the brands possesses more of an attribute, looked at in order of importance, than its rival

MANUFACTURER'S BRAND

A brand owned or controlled by an organisation the primary commitment of which is to production rather than distribution; also called a National Brand

MASTERBRAND

A brand name that dominates all products or services in a range or across a business. Sometimes used with sub-brands, sometimes used with alpha or numeric signifiers. Audi, Durex, Nescafe and Lego, for example, are all used as masterbrands.

MONOLITHIC BRAND

A single brand name that is used to "masterbrand" all products or services in a range. Individual products are nearly always identified by alpha or numeric signifiers. Companies like Mercedes and BMW favor such systems.

MULTIBRAND STRATEGY /MULTIPLE BRANDING

1. Marketing of two or more mutually competing products under different brand names by the same company. The motive may be that the company wishes to create internal competition to promote efficiency, or to differentiate its offering to different market segments, or to get maximum mileage out of established brands that it has acquired. When a company has achieved a dominant market share, multibrand strategy may be its only option for increasing sales still further without sacrificing profitability. For example, Lever Brothers sells washing powders under the Persil, Omo and Surf names; Cadbury sells chocolates under the Dairy Milk, Bournville and Fruit & Nut names; Heinz sells canned convenience foods under the Baked Beans, Spaghetti Hoops and Alphabetti Spaghetti names.

2. In this strategy, the company has more than one brand of product, competing with each other, in a given market. This contrasts with the strategy of family brands where the separate items are given a common line identity and are usually each directed to one segment within the market. Under multibrand strategy there may not even be manufacturer identification, unless required by law.

3. The use of more than one brand within a product category in order to counteract brand switching and to increase shelf space opportunities

NANO BRANDS

To move a brand into the deepest level imaginable within the consumer’s minds-eye. Through the

application of strategic branding and flawless execution, the consumer shifts from causal to committed user. (Nissim, 2005)

NATIONAL BRAND

A nationally distributed product brand name. May also be distributed regionally or locally

PARENT BRAND

1. A brand that acts as an endorsement to one or more sub-brands within a range

2. A strong brand that has the capacity to: 1) stand alone to represent a core product or service; 2) support allied products/services by sharing its brand identity, directly or through endorsement



POWER BRANDING

A strategy in which every product in a company's range has its own brand name which functions independently, unsupported by either the company's corporate brand or its other product brands. Power branding is a resource-intensive strategy, since each brand must be commercially promoted and legally protected. This strategy is used mainly by manufacturers of consumer goods. Lever's and Procter & Gamble's detergents are good examples of power brands.

PRIVATE BRAND

1. Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it's own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label

2. A brand owned by a wholesaler or retailer; also called a private label

PRODUCT LINE BRAND NAME

A brand name applied to several products within a product line

PRODUCT BRAND

1. The gestalt of the brand, including its emotional and cultural associations as well as its physical features

2. The graphic system of identification as applied to a single product or service or a family of products/services.

3. A brand which is synonymous with a particular product offering, for example, Cheerios.

REBRAND

When a brand owner revisits the brand with the purpose of updating or revising based on internal or external circumstances. Rebranding is often necessary after an M&A or if the brand has outgrown its identity/marketplace.

REGIONAL BRANDS

Manufacturers' brands sold only in certain regions.

SERVICE BRAND

1. A product consisting predominantly of intangible values. "A service is something that you can buy and sell, but not drop on your foot" (The Economist). In this sense, a service is something that you do for somebody, or a promise that you make to them.

2. A brand representing a specific service or family of services.

SINGLE BRAND NAME

A brand name which is not accompanied by any other family or corporate brand name; for example, "Surf" washing powder; "Pal" dog food, etc. Sometimes called an Individual Brand name

SUB-BRAND

1. A product or service brand that had its own name and visual identity to differentiate it from the parent brand

2. A product or service that has a persona and brand values that separate it from the parent brand

3. A product or service that has its own brand identity, which is proprietary and can be trademarked

7th August 2006 From India , Pune

PARTICIPATING IN DISCUSSION:
Swethar
Student
+1 Other

Hi,,good job...very useful information .....thnx a ton. can you give some information on the branding strategy adopted by cellular operators. plzzz....its urgent -Haritha
8th February 2007
Branding has many definitions. It is called as a name, sign, representation or scheme, or anything that mixes it used to categorize a product and to differentiate it from competitors' products.

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SOP, Business Consulting, Franchise Consulting, Retail Consulting
6th July 2017 From India, Pune
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