Compiled a glossary of brand this and brand that for an assignment.

Tried attaching as a file but had some problems.

Pasting as text. Hope you find it useful.




1. A name, sign, symbol or design, or some combination of these, used to identify a product and to differentiate it from competitors' products.

2. The set of physical attributes of a product or service, together with the beliefs and expectations surrounding it - a unique combination which the name or logo of the product or service should evoke in the mind of the audience

3. A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name. (AMA, 2005)

4. A unique and identifiable symbol, association, name or trademark which serves to differentiate competing products or services. Both a physical and emotional trigger to create a relationship between consumers and the product/service.

5. A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed

6. Collection of perceptions in the mind of the consumer

7. The sum of all the characteristics, tangible and intangible, that makes a company’s offer unique.


A decision support system for determining the marketing mix for a particular brand. The model has sub models dealing with advertising spending level, price, and salesperson effort (i.e., dollars per customer per year). Its parameters can be calibrated by combining historical data (e.g., on sales, market share, advertising spending, etc.) with structured subjective judgments (Little 1975).


The featuring of a particular brand in media vehicles in order to build strong, long-term consumer attitudes towards it


The manner in which a portfolio of brands is structured


Components of brand image, usually (but not always) assessed by qualitative research method.


A balanced investment approach for building the meaning of the brand, communicating it internally and externally, and leveraging it to increase brand profitability, brand asset value, and brand returns over time (Davis, 2002)


1. Functional or emotional associations that are assigned to a brand by its customers and prospects. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive and can have varying degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments.

2. Brand attributes are designed by the producer and expected by the consumer. Eventually, they become part of the products’ unique aura. Attributes define the brand and are inseparable from the brand’s overall image.


A comprehensive and systematic examination of all collateral activities (both tangible and intangible) to assess the health of the brand, uncover its sources of equity and suggest ways to improve and leverage that equity. The brand audit requires the understanding of brand equity sources from the perspective of both the firm and the consumer.


The obtaining of distribution and display, usually of a consumer packaged good, through a retail outlet.


1. The proportion of target customers that recall a brand. Realisation by a consumer of the existance and availability of a particular product. Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Unaided awareness is spontaneous; aided or prompted awareness is when the name is recognised among others that are listed or identified.

2. The percentage of population or target market who are aware of the existence of a given brand or company. There are two types of awareness: spontaneous, which measures the percentage of people who spontaneously mention a particular brand when asked to name brands in a certain category; and prompted, which measures the percentage of people who recognise a brand from a particular category when shown a list

3. Brand awareness is measured as the proportion of target customers which has prior knowledge of the brand. It is measured by two distinct measures; brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition is the customers' ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness). Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).


Brand champions are internal and external story tellers who spread the brand vision, brand values and cultivate the brand in an organisation. Every organisation needs committed and passionate brand champions. The more employees the organisation can turn into brand champions, the better will it be equipped to build and maintain strong brand equity. Singapore Airlines, L'Oreal, Harley Davidson, Nike, Google and LEGO are well-known examples of companies which benefit tremendously from their employees being strong and dedicated brand champions.


The selection of one brand from a set of alternative brands


Competing brands of products which can satisfy a consumer's wants almost equally as well as each other.


The image that the brand sponsor wants a particular brand to have; the desired positioning of the brand in the market and in the minds of consumers.


Any information bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the sponsoring organization that relates to the marketer's product or service.


Strong brands are managed by organisations characterized by their strong internal brand cultures. A strong brand culture is determined by the internal attitudes towards branding, management behaviour and practices of an organisation. These combined efforts are crucial to build and maintain strong brand equity through competitive advantages from branding. The most prominent person to lead these efforts is the CEO and the senior management team.


The strong attitude or attachment consumers have towards a particular brand.


1. A comparison of the percent of a brand's sales in a market to the percent of the national population in that same market

2. A ratio of brand consumption intensity to population intensity by country, state, city, region, etc


Brand environmentalism means accepting the responsibility to protect your brand and present it in the best possible light whenever and wherever it may be found (Bedbury, 2002)


1. The sum of all brand messages, brand contacts, brand associations, and brand networks that the consumer creates in his or her mind to manage information about the brand

2. The value of a brand. From a consumer perspective, brand equity is based on consumer attitudes about positive brand attributes and favorable consequences of brand use.

3. A term used in reference to the value of a well-known brand; brand equity can greatly affect the buyout price of a company.

4. The value - both tangible and intangible that a brand adds to a product/service

5. The value of the brand in its holistic sense to its owners as a corporate asset


An organisation wants to build and maintain strong brand equity for the respective brands in their portfolio including the corporate brand. The brand equity strategy serves as a guide for these marketing efforts and illustrates the plans and tactics needed to meet the brand objectives.


1. The core characteristic that defines a brand

2. The brand essence is an articulation of the "heart and soul" of the brand. A brand essence is typical three to five short word phrases that capture the core essence or spirit of the brand positioning and the values characterizing the brand. The brand essence is the description which defines a brand and the guiding vision of the brand.

3. The distillation of a brand's intrinsic characteristics into a succinct core concept


The building-up of a brand in the introductory stage of the product's life cycle; brand establishment involves developing an effective distribution network for the product and convincing consumers to buy it.


The exposure of a brand to a broader target customer market, geographic market, or distribution channel


1. The application of a brand beyond its initial range of products, or outside of its category. This becomes possible when the brand image and attributes have contributed to a perception with the consumer/user where the brand and not the product is the decision driver.

2. A product line extension marketed under the same general brand as a previous item or items. To distinguish the brand extension from the other item(s) under the primary brand, one can either add a secondary brand identification or add a generic. Thus an Epson FX-85 printer is an extension of Epson that used the secondary brand of FX-85, while Jello Instant Pudding is an extension of the Jello brand that uses a generic term. A brand extension is usually aimed at another segment of the general market for the overall brand.

3. Process by which a company develops new products to be marketed under an existing brand name

4. The use of a well-known brand name to launch a new product, of an unrelated category, into the market; also called Franchise Extension.

5. A new product or service that is related to an existing brand, but that offers a different benefit and/or appeals to a different target segment.


The awareness consumers have of a particular brand


The loyalty that attaches to a well-managed brand


This is the second half of a product's identifying title. Brand is the first half, and identifies one seller's version, while the generic is the second half and identifies the general class of item. [Example: Jello (brand) gelatin dessert (generic)]. This is not to be confused with generic brand (such as on some low-price items in supermarkets), for which there is no individual brand.


Brand guidelines are internal tools available in an organisation to educate, reinforce and motivate all involved in building and maintaining strong brands. Brand guidelines are crucial in establishing and enhancing a strong and dedicated brand culture. The brand guidelines can take various forms and methods, and could consist of brand vision, brand identity, brand strategy guidelines, a short description of the brand, brand values, brand positioning, positioning guidelines, communication tips, writing style guidelines, design style guidelines, and company-wide contact details to obtain more information from central brand management.


The synchronization of all elements of brand identity, across a line of products or services and/or across geographic markets


Decreasing marketing expenditure on a brand to zero, or to a minimal level, when sales and profits begin to decline, relying on its purchase by loyal customers to sustain it; brand harvesting (which often precedes total elimination of the brand) is usually undertaken to free up cash with which to pursue new market opportunities.


Decisions relating to the type of brand to give to a product; four brand identity alternatives are available - single brand name ("Pal" dog food), product-line brand name (Sears' Kenmore home appliance range), corporate brand name ("Kellogg's Sustain") and corporate family name ("Heinz Baked Beans").


1. A unique set of functional and mental associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand should stand for and imply a potential promise to customers. It is important to note that a brand identity refers to the strategic goal for a brand; while brand image is what currently resides in the minds of consumers.

2. The outward expression of the brand, including its name and visual appearance. The brand's identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors.

3. Ways in which a brand is outwardly presented (e.g. name, logo, typography, colour etc). Sometimes also refers to the strategic goal for a brand.


The value of specific elements of identification (e.g., name, symbol or colors) to the brands owners


1. A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. (Note that brand image is what is currently in the minds of consumers, whereas brand identity is aspirational).

2. The customer's net "out-take" from the brand. For users this is based on practical experience of the product or service concerned (informed impressions) and how well this meets expectations; for non-users it is based almost entirely upon uninformed impressions, attitudes and beliefs.

3. The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand-their thoughts, feelings, expectations.

4. The feelings, moods, emotions and connotations evoked by a brand.


A purchasing pattern characterized by a low degree of brand loyalty.


The stage of brand loyalty where the buyer will accept no alternative and will search extensively for the required brand


A label which gives the brand name of the product


The company with the highest percentage share of a certain market


A Brand Legacy begins from a point of origin (core idea) and considers historic message layering to derive a current perception as it pertains to your target audience. (Nissim, 2005)


Broadening a company's product range by introducing additional forms or types of products under a brand name which is already successful in another category - Also called Product Leveraging, Brand Extension and Franchise Extension


1. The leasing by a brand owner of the use of a brand to another company. Usually a licensing fee or royalty rate will be agreed for the use of the brand.

2. The leasing of the use of a brand to another company


A concept, building on the product life cycle concept, which states that brands also have a life cycle - introduction, growth, maturity, decline - and that particular brand management strategies are appropriate at each stage.


Consumers who remain loyal to a brand over a long period of time


1. The strength of preference for a brand compared to other similar available options. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behaviour or price sensitivity.

2. (Sales promotion definition) The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category

3. (Consumer behavior definition) The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class.(AMA, 2005)

4. A measure of the degree to which a buyer recognises, prefers and insists upon a particular brand; brand loyalty results from continued satisfaction with a product considered important and gives rise to repeat purchases of products with little thought but with high-involvement.


1. The process of managing an organisation's brands in order to increase long-term brand equity. Also the person or group responsible for designing brand identities, aligning them for maximum effectiveness, ensuring that they are not compromised by tactical actions, and designing appropriate brand crisis management plans.

2. The process by which marketers attempt to optimise the 'Marketing mix' for a specific brand

3. Practically this involves managing the tangible and intangible aspects of the brand. For product brands the tangibles are the product itself, the packaging, the price, etc. For service brands, the tangibles are to do with the customer experience - the retail environment, interface with salespeople, overall satisfaction, etc. For product, service and corporate brands, the intangibles are the same and refer to the emotional connections derived as a result of experience, identity, communication and people. Intangibles are therefore managed via the manipulation of identity, communication and people skills.


1. Person who has marketing responsibilities for a specific brand

2. An individual given responsibility for planning and co-ordinating the firm's marketing activities related to a single brand.


Brand mapping is a research technique to identify and visualize the core positioning of a brand compared to competing brands on various dimensions.


1. The brand mark is that part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It most commonly is a symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or a combination of these.

2. The part of a brand which can be seen but not spoken; the logo, symbol or design that forms part of the brand


A circumstance in which a particular brand dominates a market


1. Name used to distinguish one product from it's competitors. It can apply to a single product, an entire product line, or even a company.

2. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept.

3. The brand name is that part of a brand that can be spoken. It includes letters, numbers, or words. The term trademark covers all forms of brand (brand name, brand mark, etc.), but brand name is the form most often meant when trademark is used.

4. The part of a brand which can be spoken. It may include words, letters or numbers.


A measure of how similar, or different, different brands in the same category are perceived to be. Brand parity varies widely from one category to another. It is high for petrol, for example: about 80% of respondents (BBDO survey) see no real difference between brands. By contrast, brand parity for cars is low: only about 25% of respondents say that one make is much the same as another.


1. Brand image or identity expressed in terms of human characteristics. Distinguishing and identifiable characteristics which offer consistent, enduring and predictable messages and perceptions

2. The attribution of human personality traits (seriousness, warmth, imagination, etc.) to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation. Usually done through long-term above-the-line advertising and appropriate packaging and graphics. These traits inform brand behavior through both prepared communication/packaging, etc., and through the people who represent the brand - its employees.

3. This is the psychological nature of a particular brand as intended by its sellers, though persons in the marketplace may see the brand otherwise (called brand image). These two perspectives compare to the personalities of individual humans: what we intend or desire, and what others see or believe.

4. The feeling that people have about a brand as distinct from what the product can actually do.


The Brand Platform consists of the following elements:

• Brand Vision The brand's guiding insight into its world.

• Brand Mission How the brand will act on its insight.

• Brand Values The code by which the brand lives. The brand values act as a benchmark to measure behaviors and performance.

• Brand Personality The brand's personality traits

• Brand Tone of Voice How the brand speaks to its audiences.


The brand portfolio includes all of the brands managed by the organization, including the master brands, endorsers, sub brands, branded differentiators, co-brands, branded energizers, and corporate brands. (Aaker, 2004)


1. The "market space" a brand is perceived to occupy; the part of the brand identity that is to be actively communicated in a way that meaningfully sets it apart from the competition.

2. The distinctive position that a brand adopts in its competitive environment to ensure that individuals in its target market can tell the brand apart from others. Positioning involves the careful manipulation of every element of the marketing mix.

3. The specific niche in which the brand defines itself as occupying in the competitive environment -Positioning addresses differentiating brand attributes, user benefits and target segments, singly or in combination.


A statement that describes the "place" that a brand should occupy in the minds of target customers. Focuses on the equities that meaningfully set a brand apart from the competition. Typically constructed in the following format: "To (target market), Brand X is the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference)." Eg. "to the brand of (frame of reference) that (point of difference)." Eg. "to caffeine-concerned coffee drinkers, Sanka is the brand of coffee that has no caffeine to upset you."


1. A measure of the ability of the brand to dominate its product category

2. The force a particular brand has to dominate its category through the magnitude of its recognition.


The stage of brand loyalty at which a buyer will select a particular brand but will choose a competitor's brand if the preferred brand is unavailable.


1. The brand promise is the expected emotional and functional benefits of experiencing an organizations products and services (Knapp, 1999)

2. The spoken or unspoken expression of the continuing important and specific benefits clients connect with a firm, service or product.


Consumer buying behaviour marked by an absence of brand loyalty


Legislation forbidding other firms from using a company's registered brand names or brand marks without permission.


Brand recall is the customers' ability to retrieve a brand from memory when given the product category but not mentioning of the brand (also referred to as spontaneous or unaided awareness).


The stage of brand loyalty at which the buyer is aware of the existence of a particular brand but has no preference for it


Activity associated with getting consumers who have tried a particular brand to become repeat purchasers and with attracting new users; brand reinforcement is a key objective of the growth stage of the product's life cycle.


The alignment of a brand - its attributes, identity and personality with the primary needs/wants of its target audience


Changing the appeal of a brand in order for it to attract new market segments; brand repositioning may or may not involve modifying the product.


1. Strategy employed when a brand has reached maturity and profits begin to decline; approaches to revitalisation may include one or all of market expansion, product modification or brand repositioning.

2. A major overhaul of a brand, starting with its positioning and proceeding through creative regeneration of the brand identity


The resurrection of a brand that is being harvested or which has previously been eliminated; brand revival, where the brand name is still strong, is often a less costly strategy than the creation of a new brand and may provide a firm with a significant advantage in a mature market.


Positioning of brands within a competitive environment.


A easily recognisable and memorable phase which often accompanies a brand name. An aid to recall and reinforcement. Eg.Nike: "Just do it"


The manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer who owns the brand


1. The 'big picture' plans and tactics deployed by an organisation/brand owner to to create brand equity.

2. A plan for the systematic development of a brand to enable it to meet its agreed objectives. The strategy should be rooted in the brand's vision and driven by the principles of differentiation and sustained consumer appeal. The brand strategy should influence the total operation of a business to ensure consistent brand behaviors and brand experiences.

3. Decision-making for the effective handling of brands; three general branding strategies are available - a single brand for all of the organisation's products, family branding, or the use of individual brand names for all products.


1. The changing of support and conviction for one brand to a competing brand

2. A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another


A brand tribe is a formal or informal group of consumers whom share the same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand or a portfolio of brands. Brand tribes can be identified as strong drivers of brand strengths for many international brands like LEGO, Bang & Olufsen, Nike, Giorgio Armani, Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts, Singapore Airlines, Timberland and many other unique brands.


The process of identifying and measuring the economic benefit - brand value - that derives from brand ownership


1. The value which a brand would be given if represented on a company balance sheet.

2. The code by which the brand lives. The brand values act as a benchmark to measure behaviors and performance.

3. The monetary premium that results from having customers who are committed to your brand and willing to pay extra for it. The financial value calculated or determined to be attributable to the brand, apart from other tangible assets.

4. The emotional and functional attributes a brand embodies.


The functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that provide value to the customer: provides the rationale for making one brand choice over another.


The graphic system of identification as applied to three-dimensional physical space.


1. Selecting and blending tangible and intangible attributes to differentiate the product, service or corporation in an attractive, meaningful and compelling way.

2. Branding is the process of creating and disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.

3. The marketing practice of creating a name, symbol or design that identifies and differentiates a product from other products

4. The process by which both a brand and brand identity are developed


Branding Excellence is both an indicator of brand strength and a unique measure of the brand leadership capabilities of an organisation. Strong brands create profitable businesses, and organisations must seek to obtain branding Excellence to benefit and leverage fully from branding. A strong brand is characterized by a unique brand promise, and an outstanding brand delivery, and branding excellence measures this balance and the outcome including guidance on how to improve. Branding Excellence measures and describes how brand leadership internally in a corporation can add significant value in terms of brand strength and brand value.


The final set of brands from which a consumer makes a purchase choice after some brands in the awareness set have been considered and rejected.


The use of two or more brand names in support of a new product, service or venture


Emphasizing a corporate or family name as well as an individual brand name in product marketing


The idea that consumers establish minimum attribute levels which acceptable brands must possess; when about to make a purchase, they will consider only those brands that exhibit a conjunction of all the minimum requirements


1. The gestalt of the organization, including its philosophy and culture as well as its physical characteristics

2. Associating the name of a corporation with the individual brand name in product marketing, usually to ensure that new product introductions will be more readily accepted; differs from family branding in that corporate branding is used for all products of the company or division rather than merely for a family of brands.


A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands. The idea that consumers, about to make a purchase, will not be swayed in their product choice by any one product attribute, no matter how important, if all products possess the same amount of the attribute. Thus, the decision is made on the basis of a less important attribute


Using digital media to create, build, manage and revitalize the relationships between a brand and its audiences


A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands; the idea that consumers, about to make a purchase, evaluate competing brands on the basis of one or a few attributes, ignoring their standing on other attributes


A brand owned or controlled by an organisation, the primary economic commitment of which is to distribution rather than production; also called a private brand or a house brand.


Generally a product or service brand name that is supported by a masterbrand - either dominantly e.g. Tesco Metro or lightly e.g. Nestle Kit-Kat


A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternative brands. In this model, brand attributes are weighted; a consumer's beliefs about each brand's attributes are multiplied by the respective weights to produce a preference ranking of the alternatives


A set of alternatives that are activated directly from memory--certain brands considered during the buying process.


1. A brand that is used on two or more individual products. The product group may or may not be all of that firm's product line. The individual members of the family also carry individual brands to differentiate them from other family members. In rare cases there are family brands that have as members other family brands, each of which has individual brands. Automobiles fit the latter situation, as with Oldsmobile (family) Cutlass (family) Ciera (individual).

2. A brand name used for a number of products in the same line, such as Revlon cosmetics or Heinz canned foods; also referred to as a Blanket Brand


Using a family brand to cover only some of a firm's products. It contrasts with those cases where the term family brand is used only to designate the firm's entire product line.


1. A line extension of a main brand that is marketed by one producer to compete directly with the lower-priced products of other producers in a given market. The fighting brand usually has a separate brand identity and a low price. Its quality is usually lower than that of the main brand; it may only be temporarily on the market; and its purpose is to hold customers without having to lower the price of the main brand.

2. A low-priced manufacturer's brand sold with minimal advertising and promotional expenditure; the brand is used to compete with dealers' brands and generics. Also called a Price Brand


1. A line extension. Sometimes the term is meant to cover only those line extensions that are not premium-priced or low-priced.

2. A brand introduced into a market by a company which already has an established place in order to increase overall market share in a product category


A brand name and identity used for a single product or service in a portfolio, which is unrelated to the names and identities of other products in the company's portfolio.


1. A "no-name" brand; a product that does not carry a brand name

2. Products not associated with a private or national brand name.


Brands sold to world markets with essentially the same promotion


An identity brand that approaches the identity value of a cultural icon (Holt, 2004)


A model used to study consumer evaluation of alternative products; the consumer compares actual brands comparing them to a hypothetical ideal brand


A brand name used for a single product within a product line


The part of the brand name which identifies a particular product when it follows a family brand name; for example, in the brand name "Holden Commodore", Holden is the family brand name, while Commodore is the individual brand name


Using separate brands for each product, without a family brand to tie them to other brands of that firm. Individual brands are used when the products are different physically, are of different quality levels, are targeted for different users or uses, or vary in some other way that might cause confusion or loss of sales if brought together under a family brand umbrella.


Brands that a buyer is aware of when considering a purchase, thinks poorly of , but uses in some way as a source of information


Brands that a buyer is aware of when considering a purchase but has no interest in


A strong brand that is used and promoted as a key part of a host brand


Process of developing Web sites and other interactive products, including strategy development, structural design and graphic design


A model used in the study of consumer decision processes to evaluate alternatives; the idea that if two products are equal on the most important attribute, the consumer moves to the next most important, and, if still equal, to the next most important, etc. Thus, the purchase decision is made when one of the brands possesses more of an attribute, looked at in order of importance, than its rival


A brand owned or controlled by an organisation the primary commitment of which is to production rather than distribution; also called a National Brand


A brand name that dominates all products or services in a range or across a business. Sometimes used with sub-brands, sometimes used with alpha or numeric signifiers. Audi, Durex, Nescafe and Lego, for example, are all used as masterbrands.


A single brand name that is used to "masterbrand" all products or services in a range. Individual products are nearly always identified by alpha or numeric signifiers. Companies like Mercedes and BMW favor such systems.


1. Marketing of two or more mutually competing products under different brand names by the same company. The motive may be that the company wishes to create internal competition to promote efficiency, or to differentiate its offering to different market segments, or to get maximum mileage out of established brands that it has acquired. When a company has achieved a dominant market share, multibrand strategy may be its only option for increasing sales still further without sacrificing profitability. For example, Lever Brothers sells washing powders under the Persil, Omo and Surf names; Cadbury sells chocolates under the Dairy Milk, Bournville and Fruit & Nut names; Heinz sells canned convenience foods under the Baked Beans, Spaghetti Hoops and Alphabetti Spaghetti names.

2. In this strategy, the company has more than one brand of product, competing with each other, in a given market. This contrasts with the strategy of family brands where the separate items are given a common line identity and are usually each directed to one segment within the market. Under multibrand strategy there may not even be manufacturer identification, unless required by law.

3. The use of more than one brand within a product category in order to counteract brand switching and to increase shelf space opportunities


To move a brand into the deepest level imaginable within the consumer’s minds-eye. Through the

application of strategic branding and flawless execution, the consumer shifts from causal to committed user. (Nissim, 2005)


A nationally distributed product brand name. May also be distributed regionally or locally


1. A brand that acts as an endorsement to one or more sub-brands within a range

2. A strong brand that has the capacity to: 1) stand alone to represent a core product or service; 2) support allied products/services by sharing its brand identity, directly or through endorsement


A strategy in which every product in a company's range has its own brand name which functions independently, unsupported by either the company's corporate brand or its other product brands. Power branding is a resource-intensive strategy, since each brand must be commercially promoted and legally protected. This strategy is used mainly by manufacturers of consumer goods. Lever's and Procter & Gamble's detergents are good examples of power brands.


1. Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it's own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label

2. A brand owned by a wholesaler or retailer; also called a private label


A brand name applied to several products within a product line


1. The gestalt of the brand, including its emotional and cultural associations as well as its physical features

2. The graphic system of identification as applied to a single product or service or a family of products/services.

3. A brand which is synonymous with a particular product offering, for example, Cheerios.


When a brand owner revisits the brand with the purpose of updating or revising based on internal or external circumstances. Rebranding is often necessary after an M&A or if the brand has outgrown its identity/marketplace.


Manufacturers' brands sold only in certain regions.


1. A product consisting predominantly of intangible values. "A service is something that you can buy and sell, but not drop on your foot" (The Economist). In this sense, a service is something that you do for somebody, or a promise that you make to them.

2. A brand representing a specific service or family of services.


A brand name which is not accompanied by any other family or corporate brand name; for example, "Surf" washing powder; "Pal" dog food, etc. Sometimes called an Individual Brand name


1. A product or service brand that had its own name and visual identity to differentiate it from the parent brand

2. A product or service that has a persona and brand values that separate it from the parent brand

3. A product or service that has its own brand identity, which is proprietary and can be trademarked

From India , Pune
+2 Others

Hi,,good job...very useful information .....thnx a ton. can you give some information on the branding strategy adopted by cellular operators. plzzz....its urgent -Haritha

Branding has many definitions. It is called as a name, sign, representation or scheme, or anything that mixes it used to categorize a product and to differentiate it from competitors' products.
SOP, Business Consulting, Franchise Consulting, Retail Consulting

From India, Pune

Very useful information. Thanks for sharing.
From India,

Branding strategies are the action plans that organizations use to differentiate their products, services, and identities from their competitors.
Essentially, a brand strategy is your long-term brand, which helps to identify what kind of image you want to build for your customers. This means thinking about what kind of feelings and expectations you want your audience to associate with your company.
Do you want to be authoritative? Sophisticated? Funny? Professional?
A brand is a culmination of all the intangible feelings and thoughts that accumulate in a customer’s mind when they think about your business. Brand strategies are your way of altering those perceptions until they suit your company goals.
Components of Branding Strategies
According to experts, a good brand can lead to better customer loyalty, enhanced company image, and a more relatable identity.
As more customers continue to differentiate between businesses with emotion and experience, instead of price points and product features, a brand could be the first step to getting ahead of your competition. The question is, do you know how to create a brand that really speaks to your audience?
Before you start investing in social media branding and professional brand consultancy, remember that a successful brand contains the following features.
Company Purpose
It’s easy to assume that your brand purpose is something simple, like a desire to make money or be successful. However, the best companies have a drive that goes beyond those obvious elements and separates them from their competitors.
If you can define why your shareholders get up and go to work each morning, then you can begin to establish brand strategies that resonate with the fundamental goals and “vision” of your company. While making money will always be important to any business, consumers feel stronger connections to brands who want to accomplish more than a fat paycheck.
For instance, Tesla wants to be the most innovative technology company in the world – but they’re also fueled by an ambition to transform the world with sustainable, electric power.
Once you’ve decided what’s driving your brand forward, you need to stick to those underlying ideas religiously and provide your customers with a consistent, familiar identity.
Consistency is easier to achieve than you might think. It simply means assessing everything you do and asking yourself whether it fits with the image you’re presenting to the world.
A great way to improve your chances of consistency is to create some “brand guidelines”. Walmart is a company that’s done this exceptionally well – providing direction on everything from the brand’s editorial voice, to how to use their logo online.
Remember that consistency in your brand image is also essential for your internal communications plan, as it can help to reinforce your core messages and vision with your employees.
Emotional Connections
Customers are more “emotional” in their buying choices than you might think. In fact, even b2b get more sales when they use “emotional” rather than logical marketing messages.
Emotion is the component that makes good branding strategies, great. If you can find a way to connect with your customers on a deeper level, you can enhance engagement and develop a more sustainable relationship for the long term.
For instance, Apple is one of the best examples of a company that uses emotions to establish strong relationships with customers. The apple branding strategies uses clean design, simplicity, and a desire for innovation to connect with a wide audience. Apple is powerful because it appeals to our need to be a part of something that’s larger than ourselves.
Apple recognizes our need to be social, and our desire to be a part of an important “group” dynamic. That’s why we see people lining up for days just to get their hands on the latest iPhone or Apple release.
Employee Empowerment
Finally, while your customers are an important factor when it comes to helping your company thrive, there’s another group of people who are frequently overlooked in the business space, and that’s your employees. Whether you’re investing in a new type of social media branding, or you’re building a brand from scratch, you need the insights and buy-in of your customers to be successful.
Integrating a brand advocacy strategy into your branding strategies could help you to create an image that’s inherently more powerful. After all, if multiple people are saying the same things about a company, they’re far more believable than just one voice. What’s more, your marketing messages reach up to 561% more people when shared by employees.

From India,

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